Details

Sustainable Engineering


Sustainable Engineering

Drivers, Metrics, Tools, and Applications
1. Aufl.

von: Krishna R. Reddy, Claudio Cameselle, Jeffrey A. Adams

112,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 22.04.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9781119493945
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 544

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Beschreibungen

Comprehensively covers the definition, methodology, and current applications of the principles of sustainability and resiliency in every engineering discipline This book contains detailed information about sustainability and resiliency principles and applications in engineering practice, and provides information on how to use scientific tools for sustainability assessment that help engineers select the best alternative for each project or activity. Logically organized around the three pillars of sustainability—environment, economy, and society—it is a primary resource for students and professionals alike. Sustainable Engineering: Drivers, Metrics, Tools, and Applications offers numerous ways to help engineers contribute towards global sustainable development while solving some of the grand challenges the world is facing today. The first part of the book covers the environmental, economic, and social impacts associated with project/product development as well as society as a whole. This is followed by a section devoted to sustainability metrics and assessment tools, which includes material flow analysis and material budget, carbon footprint analysis, life cycle assessment, environmental health risk assessment, and more. Next comes an in-depth examination of sustainable engineering practices, including sustainable energy engineering, sustainable waste management, and green and sustainable buildings. The book concludes with a look at how sustainable engineering may be applied to different engineering (i.e. environmental, chemical, civil, materials, infrastructure) projects. Some of the key features of this book include the following:  Provides a complete and sensible understanding of the important concepts of sustainability, resiliency, and sustainable engineering Offers detailed explanations of sustainable engineering practices in waste management and remediation of contaminated sites, civil construction and infrastructure, and climate geoengineering Presents a set of case studies across different engineering disciplines such as bio/chemical, environmental, materials, construction, and infrastructure engineering that demonstrate the practical applicability of sustainability assessment tools to diverse projects Includes questions at the end of each chapter as well as a solutions manual for academic adopters  The depth of coverage found in Sustainable Engineering: Drivers, Metrics, Tools, and Applications makes it an ideal textbook for graduate students across all engineering disciplines and a handy resource for active professionals.
Preface xvii Section I Drivers, Environmental, Economic and Social Impacts, and Resiliency 1 1 Emerging Challenges, Sustainability, and Sustainable Engineering 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Emerging Challenges 3 1.2.1 Increased Consumption and Depletion of Natural Resources 3 1.2.2 Growing Environmental Pollution 6 1.2.3 Increasing Population 7 1.2.4 Increasing Waste Generation 8 1.2.5 Increasing Greenhouse Gas Emissions 10 1.2.6 Decline of Ecosystems 13 1.2.7 Loss of Biodiversity 13 1.2.8 Social Injustice 14 1.2.9 Urban Sprawl 16 1.3 The Master Equation or IPAT Equation 17 1.4 What Is Sustainability? 17 1.5 What Is Sustainable Engineering? 21 1.6 Summary 25 1.7 Questions 26 References 26 2 Environmental Concerns 31 2.1 Introduction 31 2.2 Global Warming and Climate Change 32 2.3 Desertification 40 2.4 Deforestation 40 2.5 Loss of Habitat and Biodiversity 41 2.6 Ozone Layer Depletion 43 2.7 Air Pollution 44 2.8 Smog 46 2.9 Acid Rain 47 2.10 Water Usage and Pollution 48 2.11 Eutrophication 51 2.12 Salinity 52 2.13 Wastes and Disposal 52 2.14 Land Contamination 59 2.15 Visibility 60 2.16 Odors 60 2.17 Aesthetic Degradation 61 2.18 Land Use Patterns 61 2.19 Thermal Pollution 61 2.20 Noise Pollution 62 2.21 Summary 62 2.22 Questions 63 References 64 3 Social, Economic, and Legal Issues 69 3.1 Introduction 69 3.2 Social Issues 69 3.2.1 Society 69 3.2.2 Developed and Developing Societies 70 3.2.3 Social Sustainability Concept 71 3.2.4 Social Indicators 72 3.2.5 Social Impact Assessment 73 3.2.6 Social Sustainability Implementation 77 3.3 Economic Issues 77 3.3.1 Economic Assessment Framework 78 3.3.2 Life Cycle Costing 79 3.3.3 True-cost Accounting 79 3.4 Legal Issues 80 3.5 Summary 81 3.6 Questions 81 References 82 4 Availability and Depletion of Natural Resources 85 4.1 Introduction 85 4.2 Types and Availability of Resources 85 4.2.1 Fossil Fuels 85 4.2.2 Radioactive Fuels 87 4.2.3 Mineral Resources 88 4.2.4 Water Resources 89 4.2.5 Other Elemental Cycles 91 4.3 Resource Depletion 94 4.3.1 Causes of Resource Depletion 95 4.3.2 Effects of Resource Depletion 95 4.3.3 Overshooting 98 4.3.4 Urban Metabolism 98 4.4 Summary 99 4.5 Questions 100 References 101 5 Disaster Resiliency 103 5.1 Introduction 103 5.2 Climate Change and Extreme Events 104 5.3 Impacts of Extreme Events 105 5.3.1 The 2012 Hurricane Sandy in New York City 105 5.3.2 The 2016 Chile’s Wildfires by Drought and Record Heat 106 5.3.3 The 2017Worst South Asian Monsoon Floods 106 5.4 What Is Resiliency? 106 5.5 Initiatives and Policies on Resiliency 109 5.6 Resiliency Framework 112 5.7 Resilient Infrastructure 115 5.8 Resilient Infrastructure Examples 117 5.8.1 San Francisco Firehouse Resilient Design 117 5.8.2 San Francisco Resilient CSD Design 117 5.8.3 Resilient Environmental Remediation 119 5.9 Challenges 126 5.10 Summary 126 5.11 Questions 127 References 127 Section II Sustainability Metrics and Assessment Tools 131 6 Sustainability Indicators, Metrics, and Assessment Tools 133 6.1 Introduction 133 6.2 Sustainability Indicators 133 6.3 Sustainability Metrics 136 6.4 Sustainability Assessment Tools 137 6.5 Summary 139 6.6 Questions 139 References 140 7 Material Flow Analysis and Material Budget 143 7.1 Introduction 143 7.2 Budget of Natural Resources 143 7.3 Constructing a Budget 145 7.4 Material Flow Analysis 145 7.5 Material Flow Analysis: Wastes 148 7.6 National Material Account 151 7.7 Summary 155 7.8 Questions 156 References 156 8 Carbon Footprint Analysis 159 8.1 Introduction 159 8.2 Global Warming Potential and Carbon Footprint 159 8.3 Measuring Carbon Footprint 161 8.3.1 Define the Scope of Your Inventory 161 8.3.2 Measure Emissions and Establish a Baseline 161 8.3.3 Develop Targets and Strategies to Reduce Emissions 164 8.3.4 Off-set Unavoidable Emissions 164 8.3.5 Independent Verification 164 8.4 Standards for Calculating the Carbon Footprint 164 8.5 GHG Inventory: Developments in the United States 165 8.6 USEPA: Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program 166 8.7 Tools for GHG Inventory 166 8.8 UIC Carbon Footprint Case Study 167 8.9 Programs to Mitigate GHG Emissions 171 8.10 Summary 172 8.11 Questions 172 References 172 9 Life Cycle Assessment 175 9.1 Introduction 175 9.2 Life Cycle Assessment 176 9.2.1 Definition and Objective 176 9.2.2 Procedure 176 9.2.3 History 178 9.3 LCA Methodology 179 9.3.1 Goal and Scope Definition 180 9.3.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) 181 9.3.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) 184 9.3.4 Interpretation 188 9.4 LCA Tools and Applications 189 9.5 Summary 190 9.6 Questions 191 References 191 10 Streamlined Life Cycle Assessment 193 10.1 Introduction 193 10.2 Streamlined LCA (SLCA) 194 10.3 Expanded SLCA 197 10.4 Simple Example of SLCA 200 10.5 Applications of SLCA 202 10.6 Summary 206 10.7 Questions 206 References 207 11 Economic Input–Output Life Cycle Assessment 209 11.1 Introduction 209 11.2 EIO Model 209 11.3 EIO-LCA 211 11.4 EIO-LCA Model Results 213 11.4.1 Interpretation of Results 213 11.4.2 Uncertainty 213 11.4.3 Other Issues and Considerations 214 11.5 Example of EIO-LCA Model 214 11.6 Conventional LCA versus EIO-LCA 216 11.7 EIO versus Physical Input–Output (PIO) Analysis 218 11.8 Summary 221 11.9 Questions 221 References 222 12 Environmental Health Risk Assessment 223 12.1 Introduction 223 12.2 Emergence of the Risk Era 223 12.3 Risk Assessment and Management 224 12.3.1 Hazard Identification 225 12.3.2 Dose–Response Assessment 225 12.3.3 Exposure Assessment 227 12.3.4 Risk Characterization 228 12.4 Ecological Risk Assessment 230 12.5 Summary 231 12.6 Questions 232 References 232 13 Other Emerging Assessment Tools 233 13.1 Introduction 233 13.2 Environmental Assessment Tools/Indicators 233 13.3 Economic Assessment Tools 235 13.3.1 Life-Cycle Costing 236 13.3.2 Cost–Benefit Analysis 237 13.4 Ecosystem Services Valuation Tools 237 13.5 Environmental Justice Tools 238 13.6 Integrated Sustainability Assessment Tools 239 13.7 Summary 241 13.8 Questions 241 References 242 Section III Sustainable Engineering Practices 243 14 Sustainable Energy Engineering 245 14.1 Introduction 245 14.2 Environmental Impacts of Energy Generation 246 14.2.1 Air Emissions 246 14.2.2 Solid Waste Generation 250 14.2.3 Water Resource Use 250 14.2.4 Land Resource Use 250 14.3 Nuclear Energy 251 14.4 Strategies for Clean Energy 252 14.5 Renewable Energy 254 14.5.1 Solar Energy 254 14.5.2 Wind Energy 255 14.5.3 Water Energy 257 14.5.4 Geothermal Energy 259 14.5.5 Biomass Energy 262 14.6 Summary 265 14.7 Questions 266 References 266 15 Sustainable Waste Management 269 15.1 Introduction 269 15.2 Types of Waste 269 15.2.1 Nonhazardous Waste 270 15.2.2 Hazardous Waste 270 15.3 Effects and Impacts of Waste 270 15.4 Waste Management 271 15.4.1 Pollution Prevention 272 15.4.2 Green Chemistry 272 15.4.3 Waste Minimization 274 15.4.4 Reuse/Recycling 274 15.4.5 Energy Recovery 276 15.4.6 Landfilling 276 15.5 Integrated Waste Management 278 15.6 Sustainable Waste Management 281 15.7 Circular Economy 282 15.8 Summary 283 15.9 Questions 283 References 284 16 Green and Sustainable Buildings 287 16.1 Introduction 287 16.2 Green Building History 288 16.3 Why Build Green? 288 16.4 Green Building Concepts 289 16.5 Components of Green Building 290 16.6 Green Building Rating – LEED 293 16.7 Summary 297 16.8 Questions 297 References 298 17 Sustainable Civil Infrastructure 299 17.1 Introduction 299 17.2 Principles of Sustainable Infrastructure 300 17.3 Civil Infrastructure 300 17.4 EnvisionTM: Sustainability Rating of Civil Infrastructure 302 17.5 Sustainable Infrastructure Practices: Example of Water Infrastructure 305 17.5.1 Green Roofs 306 17.5.2 Permeable Pavements 306 17.5.3 Rainwater Harvesting 307 17.5.4 Rain Gardens and Planter Boxes 309 17.5.5 Bioswales 309 17.5.6 Constructed Wetlands and Tree Canopies 309 17.6 Summary 313 17.7 Questions 313 References 314 18 Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Sites 315 18.1 Introduction 315 18.2 Contaminated Site Remediation Approach 317 18.3 Green and Sustainable Remediation Technologies 318 18.4 Sustainable Remediation Framework 323 18.5 Sustainable Remediation Indicators, Metrics, and Tools 326 18.6 Case Studies 328 18.7 Challenges and Opportunities 329 18.8 Summary 330 18.9 Questions 331 References 332 19 Climate Geoengineering 333 19.1 Introduction 333 19.2 Climate Geoengineering 336 19.3 Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) Methods 336 19.3.1 Subsurface Sequestration 336 19.3.2 Surface Sequestration 338 19.3.3 Marine Organism Sequestration 338 19.3.4 Direct Engineered Capture 339 19.4 Solar Radiation Management (SRM) Methods 340 19.4.1 Sulfur Injection 342 19.4.2 Reflectors and Mirrors 343 19.5 Applicability of CDR and SRM 344 19.6 Climate Geoengineering – A Theoretical Framework 345 19.7 Risks and Challenges 345 19.8 Summary 347 19.9 Questions 348 References 348 Section IV Sustainable Engineering Applications 351 20 Environmental and Chemical Engineering Projects 353 20.1 Introduction 353 20.2 Food Scrap Landfilling Versus Composting 353 20.2.1 Background 353 20.2.2 Methodology 355 20.2.3 Environmental Sustainability 358 20.2.4 Life Cycle Assessment 359 20.2.5 Economic Sustainability 359 20.2.6 Social Sustainability 365 20.2.7 ENVISIONTM 365 20.2.8 Conclusions 368 20.3 Adsorbent for the Removal of Arsenic from Groundwater 368 20.3.1 Background 368 20.3.2 Methodology 369 20.3.3 Environmental Sustainability 372 20.3.4 Economic Sustainability 373 20.3.5 Social Sustainability 375 20.3.6 Streamline Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) 375 20.3.7 Envision 378 20.3.8 Conclusions 380 20.4 Conventional Versus Biocover Landfill Cover System 381 20.4.1 Background 382 20.4.2 Methodology 383 20.4.3 Environmental Sustainability 386 20.4.4 Economic Sustainability 391 20.4.5 Social Sustainability 393 20.4.6 Conclusions 394 20.5 Algae Biomass Deep Well Reactors Versus Open Pond Systems 394 20.5.1 Background 394 20.5.2 Methodology 396 20.5.3 Environmental Sustainability 400 20.5.4 Economic Sustainability 402 20.5.5 Social Sustainability 402 20.5.6 Conclusions 405 20.6 Remedial Alternatives for PCB- and Pesticide-Contaminated Sediment 405 20.6.1 Background 405 20.6.2 Methodology 406 20.6.3 Environmental Sustainability 410 20.6.4 Economic Sustainability 411 20.6.5 Social Sustainability 412 20.6.6 Overall Sustainability 414 20.6.7 Conclusions 416 20.7 Summary 416 References 417 21 Civil and Materials Engineering Sustainability Projects 419 21.1 Introduction 419 21.2 Sustainable Translucent Composite Panels 419 21.2.1 Background 419 21.2.2 Methodology 420 21.2.3 Environmental Sustainability 423 21.2.4 Economic Sustainability 423 21.2.5 Social Sustainability 427 21.2.6 Conclusions 430 21.3 Sustainability Assessment of Concrete Mixtures for Pavements and Bridge Decks 430 21.3.1 Background 430 21.3.2 Methodology 432 21.3.3 Environmental Sustainability 439 21.3.4 Economic Sustainability 445 21.3.5 Social Sustainability 447 21.3.6 Conclusions 448 21.4 Sustainability Assessment of Parking Lot Design Alternatives 449 21.4.1 Background 449 21.4.2 Methodology 450 21.4.3 Environmental Sustainability 452 21.4.4 Economic Sustainability 455 21.4.5 Social Sustainability 456 21.4.6 Overall Sustainability 457 21.4.7 Conclusions 457 21.5 Summary 458 References 458 22 Infrastructure Engineering Sustainability Projects 461 22.1 Introduction 461 22.2 Comparison of Two Building Designs for an Electric Bus Substation 461 22.2.1 Background 461 22.2.2 Methodology 462 22.2.3 Environmental Sustainability 463 22.2.4 Economic Sustainability 467 22.2.5 Social Sustainability 469 22.2.6 Conclusion 472 22.3 Prefabricated Cantilever Retaining Wall versus Conventional Cantilever Cast-in Place Retaining Wall 472 22.3.1 Background 473 22.3.2 Methodology 473 22.3.3 Environmental Sustainability 477 22.3.4 Economic Sustainability 477 22.3.5 Social Sustainability 478 22.3.6 Conclusion 483 22.4 Sustainability Assessment of Two Alternate Water Pipelines 483 22.4.1 Background 483 22.4.2 Methodology 484 22.4.3 Environmental Sustainability 486 22.4.4 Economic Sustainability 487 22.4.5 Social Sustainability 488 22.4.6 Conclusion 489 22.5 Sustainable Rural Electrification 491 22.5.1 Background 491 22.5.2 Methodology 491 22.5.3 Environmental Sustainability 493 22.5.4 Economic Sustainability 493 22.5.5 Social Sustainability 497 22.5.6 Conclusion 498 22.6 Sustainability Assessment of Shear Wall Retrofitting Techniques 499 22.6.1 Background 499 22.6.2 Methodology 500 22.6.3 Environmental Sustainability 503 22.6.4 Economic Sustainability 505 22.6.5 Social Sustainability 507 22.6.6 Overall Sustainability 507 22.6.7 Conclusion 508 22.7 Summary 510 References 510 Index 513
KRISHNA R. REDDY, PHD, is a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering in the Department of Civil and Materials Engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and the Director of the Sustainable Engineering Research Laboratory and the Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Laboratory. CLAUDIO CAMESELLE, PHD, is an Associate Professor at the University of Vigo (Spain) where he coordinates the master programs in industrial pollution and environmental mangement. JEFFREY A. ADAMS, PHD, is a Principal with San Ramon, California-based ENGEO Incorporated. He is a licensed Professional Engineer in the State of California and a Certified Environmental Manager in the State of Nevada.
Comprehensively covers the definition, methodology, and current applications of the principles of sustainability and resiliency in every engineering discipline This book contains detailed information about sustainability and resiliency principles and applications in engineering practice, and provides information on how to use scientific tools for sustainability assessment that help engineers select the best alternative for each project or activity. Logically organized around the three pillars of sustainability—environment, economy, and society—it is a primary resource for students and professionals alike. Sustainable Engineering: Drivers, Metrics, Tools, and Applications??offers numerous ways to help engineers contribute towards global sustainable development while solving some of the grand challenges the world is facing today. The first part of the book covers the environmental, economic, and social impacts associated with project/product development as well as society as a whole. This is followed by a section devoted to sustainability metrics and assessment tools, which includes material flow analysis and material budget, carbon footprint analysis, life cycle assessment, environmental health risk assessment, and more. Next comes an in-depth examination of sustainable engineering practices, including sustainable energy engineering, sustainable waste management, and green and sustainable buildings. The book concludes with a look at how sustainable engineering may be applied to different engineering (i.e. environmental, chemical, civil, materials, infrastructure) projects. Some of the key features of this book include the following: Provides a complete and sensible understanding of the important concepts of sustainability, resiliency, and sustainable engineering Offers detailed explanations of sustainable engineering practices in waste management and remediation of contaminated sites, civil construction and infrastructure, and climate geoengineering Presents a set of case studies across different engineering disciplines such as bio/chemical, environmental, materials, construction, and infrastructure engineering that demonstrate the practical applicability of sustainability assessment tools to diverse projects Includes questions at the end of each chapter as well as a solutions manual for academic adopters The depth of coverage found in??Sustainable Engineering: Drivers, Metrics, Tools, and Applications makes it an ideal textbook for graduate students across all engineering disciplines and a handy resource for active professionals.

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