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Cryocoolers 13


Cryocoolers 13



von: Ronald G. Ross

296,31 €

Verlag: Springer
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 15.02.2007
ISBN/EAN: 9780387275338
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 726

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Beschreibungen

The last two years have witnessed a continuation in the breakthrough shift toward pulse tube cryocoolers for long-life, high-reliability cryocooler applications. New this year are papers de­ scribing the development of very large pulse tube cryocoolers to provide up to 1500 watts of cooling for industrial applications such as cooling the superconducting magnets of Mag-lev trains, coolmg superconducting cables for the power mdustry, and liquefymg natural gas. Pulse tube coolers can be driven by several competing compressor technologies. One class of pulse tube coolers is referred to as "Stirling type" because they are based on the linear Oxford Stirling-cooler type compressor; these generally provide coolmg m the 30 to 100 K temperature range and operate ^t frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. A second type of pulse tube cooler is the so-called "Gifford-McMahon type. " Pulse tube coolers of this type use a G-M type compressor and lower frequency operation (~1 Hz) to achieve temperatures in the 2 to 10 K temperature range. The third type of pulse tube cooler is driven by a thermoacoustic oscillator, a heat engine that functions well in remote environments where electricity is not readily available. All three types are described, and in total, nearly half of this proceedings covers new developments in the pulse tube arena. Complementing the work on low-temperature pulse tube and Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers is substantial continued progress on rare earth regenerator materials.
The last two years have witnessed a continuation in the breakthrough shift toward pulse tube cryocoolers for long-life, high-reliability cryocooler applications. New this year are papers de­ scribing the development of very large pulse tube cryocoolers to provide up to 1500 watts of cooling for industrial applications such as cooling the superconducting magnets of Mag-lev trains, coolmg superconducting cables for the power mdustry, and liquefymg natural gas. Pulse tube coolers can be driven by several competing compressor technologies. One class of pulse tube coolers is referred to as "Stirling type" because they are based on the linear Oxford Stirling-cooler type compressor; these generally provide coolmg m the 30 to 100 K temperature range and operate ^t frequencies from 30 to 60 Hz. A second type of pulse tube cooler is the so-called "Gifford-McMahon type. " Pulse tube coolers of this type use a G-M type compressor and lower frequency operation (~1 Hz) to achieve temperatures in the 2 to 10 K temperature range. The third type of pulse tube cooler is driven by a thermoacoustic oscillator, a heat engine that functions well in remote environments where electricity is not readily available. All three types are described, and in total, nearly half of this proceedings covers new developments in the pulse tube arena. Complementing the work on low-temperature pulse tube and Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers is substantial continued progress on rare earth regenerator materials.
Space Cryocoolers for 4–18 K Applications.- Ball Aerospace 4–10 K Space Cryocoolers.- NGST Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program (ACTDP) Cooler System.- A Study of the Use of 6K ACTDP Cryocoolers for the MIRI Instrument on JWST.- Lockheed Martin 6K/18K Cryocooler.- Status of Pulse Tube Cryocooler Development at Sunpower.- Development of a Small-Scale Collins-Type 10 K Cryocooler for Space Applications.- 20 to 80 K Long-life Stirling Cryocoolers.- STI’s Solution for High Quantity Production of Stirling Coolers.- Raytheon RS1 Cryocooler Performance.- Ball Aerospace Next Generation 2-Stage 35 K SB235 Coolers.- Development of the LSF95xx 2nd Generation Flexure Bearing Coolers.- CMC One-Watt Linear Cooler Performance Map at Higher Input Power.- Space Pulse Tube Cryocooler Developments.- Characterization of the NGST 150 K Mini Pulse Tube Cryocooler.- Performance Test Results of a Miniature 50 to 80 K Pulse Tube Cooler.- Performance of Japanese Pulse Tube Coolers for Space Applications.- High Capacity Staged Pulse Tube.- Lockheed Martin RAMOS Engineering Model Cryocooler.- Lockheed Martin Two-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler for GIFTS.- Second Generation Raytheon Stirling/Pulse Tube Hybrid Cold Head Design and Performance.- Commercial and Industrial Pulse Tube Cryocoolers.- Efficient 10 K Pulse Tube Cryocoolers.- Development of Stirling-Type Coaxial Pulse Tube Cryocoolers.- Low Temperature High Frequency Pulse Tube Cooler Using Precooling.- Development of a Single Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator with Linear Compressor.- A Commercial Pulse Tube Cryocooler with 200 W Refrigeration at 80 K.- Large Scale Cryocooler Development for Superconducting Electric Power Applications (HTS-4).- The Effect of Mean Pressure on Large Pulse Tube Cryocoolers.- Thermoacoustically-Driven Pulse Tube Cryocoolers.- Operation of Thermoacoustic Stirling Heat Engine Driven Large Multiple Pulse Tube Refrigerators.- A Traveling Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator within Room Temperature Range.- Building a High-Efficiency and Compact-Sized Thermoacoustically-Driven Pulse Tube Cooler.- Linear Compressor Development and Modeling.- Development of a Linear Compressor for Use in G-M Cryocoolers.- Compression Losses in Cryocoolers.- A Novel Method for Controlling Piston Drift in Devices with Clearance Seals.- Verification of Long Life Operation through Real Time Dynamic Alignment Tracking.- Sensorless Balancing of a Dual-Piston Linear Compressor of a Stirling Cryogenic Cooler.- Dynamically Counterbalanced Single-Piston Linear Compressor of a Cryogenic Cooler.- Pulse Tube Analysis and Experimental Measurements.- Counterflow Pulse-tube Refrigerator.- A Study of Performance Improvement of the Coaxial Inertance Tube Pulse Tube Cryocooler.- Measurements of Phase Shifts in an Inertance Tube.- Phase Shift and Compressible Fluid Dynamics in Inertance Tubes.- CFD Simulation of Multi-Dimensional Effects in an Inertance Tube Pulse Tube Refrigerator.- Phase Angle Model for Pulse Tube with Secondary Orifice Using Lumped-Element Electrical Network Analysis.- Numerical Simulations of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Pulse Tubes.- Visualization of Secondary Flow in Tapered Double-Inlet Pulse Tube Refrigerators.- Numeric Code for the Design of Pulse Tube Coolers.- Enthalpy, Entropy, and Exergy Flows in Ideal Pulse Tube Cryocoolers.- Enthalpy, Entropy, and Exergy Flow Losses in Pulse Tube Cryocoolers.- A Model for Energy and Exergy Flow in an Orifice Pulse Tube Refrigerator.- Regenerator Materials Development and Testing.- Development of New Cryocooler Regenerator Materials — Ductile Intermetallic Compounds.- Status of the Development of Ceramic Regenerator Materials.- Doped AMnO3 Perovskites Suitable for Use in Magnetic Cooling Devices.- Improved Cooling Power by Means of a Regenerator Made from Lead Wire Mesh.- A Low Porosity Regenerator Matrix for High Frequency Low Temperature Cryocoolers.- X-ray Lithography Fabricated Microchannel Regenerators for Cryocoolers.- Performance Investigation of Stirling-Type Nonmagnetic and Nonmetallic Pulse Tube Cryocoolers for High-Tc SQUID Operation.- Regenerator Modeling and Performance Investigations.- Flow Circulations in Foil-Type Regenerators Produced by Non-Uniform Layer Spacing.- A New Angle of View for Understanding and Evaluating Flow Characteristics of Cyclic Regenerators.- Experimental Flow Characteristics Study of a High Frequency Pulse Tube Regenerator.- Regenerator Flows Modeled Using the Method of Characteristics.- A Fast and Accurate Regenerator Numerical Model.- A Parametric Optimization of a Single Stage Regenerator Using REGEN 3.2.- A Numerical Model of an Active Magnetic Regenerator Refrigeration System.- J-T and Throttle-Cycle Cryocooler Developments.- Comparative Performance of Throttle Cycle Cryotiger Coolers Operating with Different Mixed Refrigerants.- Progress in Micro Joule-Thomson Cooling at Twente University.- The Performance of Joule Thomson Refrigerator.- Sorption Cryocooler Developments.- Development of a 4K Sorption Cooler for ESA’s Darwin Mission: System-Level Design Considerations.- Improvements in Sorption Compressor Design.- Cryogenic Testing of Planck Sorption Cooler Test Facility.- Sub-Kelvin, Magnetic, and Optical Refrigerators.- Cryogenic Tests of a 0.1 K Dilution Cooler for Planck-HFI.- HERSCHEL Sorption Cooler Qualification Models.- ADR Configurations and Optimization for Cryocooler-Based Operation.- Small Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator for Space Missions.- Magnetoresistive Heat Switches and Compact Superconducting Magnets for a Miniature Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator.- The Performance of a Laboratory Optical Refrigerator.- Cryocooler Integration Technologies.- A Thermal Storage Unit For Low Temperature Cryocoolers.- Development of a Nitrogen Thermosiphon for Remote Cryogenic Devices.- Space Cryocooler Applications.- Long Life Cryocoolers for Space Applications a Database Update.- Active Versus Standby Redundancy for Improved Cryocooler Reliability in Space.- INTEGRAL Spectrometer Cryostat Design and Performance after 1.5 Years in Orbit.- Two Year Performance of the RHESSI Cryocooler.- The NICMOS Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler — Two Years in Orbit.- Model for Orbit-Induced Temperature Oscillations in a Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler, Part 1: Warm End Components.- Model for Orbit-Induced Temperature Oscillations in a Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler, Part 2: Cold Head Components.- Cryogenic Tests of a Development Model for the 90 K Freezer for the International Space Station.- Commercial Cryocooler Applications.- Comparison of Measurements and Models for a Pulse Tube Refrigerator to Cool Cryo-Surgical Probes.- Development of a GM-Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator Cooling System for Superconducting Maglev Vehicles.- High-Power Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Liquid Xenon Particle Detectors.- Vibration-Free Pulse Tube Cryocooler System for Gravitational Wave Detectors, Part I: Vibration-Reduction Method and Measurement.- Vibration-Free Pulse Tube Cryocooler System for Gravitational Wave Detectors, Part II: Cooling Performance and Vibration.- Two-Stage Refrigeration for Subcooling Liquid Hydrogen and Oxygen as Densified Propellants.
Presents the latest developments and performance measurements for both users and developers of cryocoolers
Discusses pulse tube, Gifford-McMahon, and tactical Stirling cryocoolers, as well as progress on rare earth regenerator materials
Draws upon the work of the leading international experts in the field
Archival reference based on the 13th International Cryocooler Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 29 - April 1, 2004

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